Salient Features of Indian Constitution – The Indian Constitution, adopted on 26th November 1949, is the supreme law of India and provides the framework for the functioning of the government, fundamental rights.
The Indian Constitution, adopted on 26th November 1949, is the supreme law of India and provides the framework for the functioning of the government, fundamental rights, and the duties of its citizens. It is one of the lengthiest and most comprehensive constitutions in the world. The Constitution of India encompasses several salient features that make it unique and significant. This article explores some of the notable salient features of the Indian Constitution.
Salient Features of Indian Constitution
Lengthy and Detailed Constitution:
The Indian Constitution is one of the lengthiest constitutions globally, consisting of a preamble and 470 articles divided into 25 parts. It covers a wide range of subjects, including fundamental rights, directive principles of state policy, fundamental duties, the structure of government, and the powers of various institutions. The detailed nature of the Constitution aims to provide a comprehensive framework for the governance of the country.
Federal System with Unitary Bias:
The Indian Constitution establishes a federal system of government, where power is divided between the central government and the state governments. However, it also has a unitary bias, meaning that the central government holds more power compared to the state governments. In certain situations, the central government can take control of the states’ administration, allowing for a strong center.
Parliamentary System of Government:
India follows a parliamentary form of government where the President is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Council of Ministers, led by the Prime Minister, is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha (Lower House of Parliament).
Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties:
The Indian Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to its citizens, ensuring individual liberties and freedoms. These rights include the right to equality, right to freedom of speech and expression, right to protection from discrimination, and more. Additionally, the Constitution also includes fundamental duties that every citizen should fulfill, such as respecting the Constitution, promoting harmony, and safeguarding public property.
Directive Principles of State Policy:
The Indian Constitution includes a set of guidelines called Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP). These principles direct the government in matters related to social and economic welfare, including education, health, employment, and distribution of resources. While these principles are not enforceable by the courts, they serve as a moral and ethical compass for the government in policymaking.
The Indian Constitution establishes an independent judiciary as a separate and autonomous branch of the government. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in the country, entrusted with the power of judicial review. It acts as the guardian of the Constitution, ensuring that the government’s actions do not violate the constitutional provisions and the rights of citizens.
Secularism is a core principle enshrined in the Indian Constitution. India is a multi-religious and multicultural country, and the Constitution guarantees freedom of religion to all citizens. The state does not promote any particular religion and treats all religions equally. Citizens are free to practice and propagate any religion of their choice.
The Indian Constitution encompasses several salient features that have contributed to the stable and democratic functioning of the country. It provides a comprehensive framework for governance, enshrines fundamental rights, and establishes the principles of federalism, parliamentary democracy, and secularism.