Features of Indian Judiciary System

Features of Indian Judiciary System – The Indian judiciary system is a fundamental pillar of the country’s democracy, ensuring the rule of law and safeguarding citizens’ rights.


The Indian judiciary system is a fundamental pillar of the country’s democracy, ensuring the rule of law and safeguarding citizens’ rights. With its roots tracing back to ancient times, the modern Indian judiciary system has evolved to uphold justice, equality, and fairness for all. This article delves into the essential features that define the Indian judiciary system and its role in shaping the nation’s legal landscape.

Features of Indian Judiciary System

  1. Independence and Separation of Powers

One of the cornerstones of the Indian judiciary system is its independence from the executive and legislative branches of government. This separation of powers ensures that the judiciary can function impartially and without interference. The Supreme Court of India, as the apex court, has the authority to safeguard the Constitution’s supremacy and acts as a check on the actions of both the executive and legislative branches.

  1. Hierarchy of Courts

The Indian judiciary system comprises a hierarchical structure that consists of different levels of courts, each with its own jurisdiction and powers. The structure starts from the lower courts at the district level and ascends through the state and high courts to culminate in the Supreme Court. This layered system allows for efficient administration of justice and the resolution of cases at appropriate levels.

  1. Rule of Law and Equality

The judiciary in India is committed to upholding the rule of law, ensuring that all individuals are subject to the same laws and regulations without discrimination. This principle ensures that justice is meted out fairly and without bias, regardless of an individual’s status, background, or position in society.

  1. Judicial Review

The Indian judiciary system possesses the power of judicial review, enabling it to assess the constitutionality of laws passed by the legislative bodies. If a law is found to be in violation of the Constitution, the judiciary has the authority to strike it down. This feature reinforces the supremacy of the Constitution and prevents potential abuses of power by the legislative branch.

Indian Judiciary

  1. Public Interest Litigation (PIL)

An innovative feature of Indian judiciary system is the concept of Public Interest Litigation (PIL). PIL allows individuals or groups to approach the courts seeking remedies for issues that affect the public at large, even if the petitioner is not directly impacted by the matter. This mechanism has been instrumental in addressing social and environmental issues and promoting justice for marginalized communities.

  1. Fundamental Rights Protection

The Indian Constitution enshrines fundamental rights that guarantee citizens various freedoms and protections. The judiciary plays a pivotal role in safeguarding these rights by providing a platform for individuals to challenge violations and seek redressal. This function reinforces the importance of human rights and civil liberties in a democratic society.

  1. Precedent and Stare Decisis

The doctrine of precedent, also known as stare decisis, is an essential feature of the Indian judiciary system. It means that lower courts are bound by the decisions of higher courts, ensuring consistency and predictability in legal outcomes. Precedents help in maintaining uniformity in the interpretation and application of laws.

  1. Speedy Justice and Alternative Dispute Resolution

Recognizing the need for timely justice delivery, the Indian judiciary system has taken steps to expedite the resolution of cases. Additionally, alternative dispute resolution methods, such as mediation and arbitration, are encouraged to ease the burden on traditional courts and provide quicker resolutions for certain types of disputes.


The Indian judiciary system embodies a complex yet balanced framework designed to uphold the rule of law, protect fundamental rights, and ensure justice for all citizens. Its features, ranging from separation of powers to the doctrine of precedent, collectively contribute to maintaining a just and democratic society

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